The Spirit of Laws

Titre : The Spirit of Laws
Auteur : Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu
Éditeur : Library of Alexandria
ISBN-13 : 9781465605160
Libération : 2015-11-08

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Laws, in their most general signification, are the necessary relations arising from the nature of things. In this sense all beings have their laws: the Deity His laws, the material world its laws, the intelligences superior to man their laws, the beasts their laws, man his laws. They who assert that a blind fatality produced the various effects we behold in this world talk very absurdly; for can anything be more unreasonable than to pretend that a blind fatality could be productive of intelligent beings? There is, then, a prime reason; and laws are the relations subsisting between it and different beings, and the relations of these to one another. God is related to the universe, as Creator and Preserver; the laws by which He created all things are those by which He preserves them. He acts according to these rules, because He knows them; He knows them, because He made them; and He made them, because they are in relation to His wisdom and power. Since we observe that the world, though formed by the motion of matter, and void of understanding, subsists through so long a succession of ages, its motions must certainly be directed by invariable laws; and could we imagine another world, it must also have constant rules, or it would inevitably perish. Thus the creation, which seems an arbitrary act, supposes laws as invariable as those of the fatality of the Atheists. It would be absurd to say that the Creator might govern the world without those rules, since without them it could not subsist. These rules are a fixed and invariable relation. In bodies moved, the motion is received, increased, diminished, or lost, according to the relations of the quantity of matter and velocity; each diversity is uniformity, each change is constancy. Particular intelligent beings may have laws of their own making, but they have some likewise which they never made. Before there were intelligent beings, they were possible; they had therefore possible relations, and consequently possible laws. Before laws were made, there were relations of possible justice. To say that there is nothing just or unjust but what is commanded or forbidden by positive laws, is the same as saying that before the describing of a circle all the radii were not equal. We must therefore acknowledge relations of justice antecedent to the positive law by which they are established: as, for instance, if human societies existed, it would be right to conform to their laws; if there were intelligent beings that had received a benefit of another being, they ought to show their gratitude; if one intelligent being had created another intelligent being, the latter ought to continue in its original state of dependence; if one intelligent being injures another, it deserves a retaliation; and so on. But the intelligent world is far from being so well governed as the physical. For though the former has also its laws, which of their own nature are invariable, it does not conform to them so exactly as the physical world. This is because, on the one hand, particular intelligent beings are of a finite nature, and consequently liable to error; and on the other, their nature requires them to be free agents. Hence they do not steadily conform to their primitive laws; and even those of their own instituting they frequently infringe. Whether brutes be governed by the general laws of motion, or by a particular movement, we cannot determine. Be that as it may, they have not a more intimate relation to God than the rest of the material world; and sensation is of no other use to them than in the relation they have either to other particular beings or to themselves. By the allurement of pleasure they preserve the individual, and by the same allurement they preserve their species. They have natural laws, because they are united by sensation; positive laws they have none, because they are not connected by knowledge. And yet they do not invariably conform to their natural laws; these are better observed by vegetables, that have neither understanding nor sense. Brutes are deprived of the high advantages which we have; but they have some which we have not. They have not our hopes, but they are without our fears; they are subject like us to death, but without knowing it; even most of them are more attentive than we to self_preservation, and do not make so bad a use of their passions. Man, as a physical being, is like other bodies governed by invariable laws. As an intelligent being, he incessantly transgresses the laws established by God, and changes those of his own instituting. He is left to his private direction, though a limited being, and subject, like all finite intelligences, to ignorance and error: even his imperfect knowledge he loses; and as a sensible creature, he is hurried away by a thousand impetuous passions.

The Spirit of Laws Volume 2

Titre : The Spirit of Laws Volume 2
Auteur : Charles De Secondat Montesquieu (Baron D
Éditeur : Palala Press
ISBN-13 : 134065248X
Libération : 2015-08-31

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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work.As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

The Picture of Dorian Gray

Titre : The Picture of Dorian Gray
Auteur : Oscar Wilde
Éditeur : Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN-13 : 0192833650
Libération : 1998-01

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With an Introduction and Notes by John M.L. Drew, University of Buckingham.

The Mysteries of Marseille

Titre : The Mysteries of Marseille
Auteur : Émile Zola
Éditeur : Mondial
ISBN-13 : 9781595690913
Libération : 2008-04

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Published in 1867, "The Mysteries of Marseille" recounts the love of Philippe Cayol, a poor, untitled republican, and of young Blanche de Cazalis, the niece of De Cazalis. Philippe's brother devotes himself to protecting the two lovers and the child Blanche gives birth to before entering a convent.

Porgy

Titre : Porgy
Auteur : Du Bose Heyward
Éditeur : Read Books Ltd
ISBN-13 : 9781446546581
Libération : 2013-04-16

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This fascinating book gives a vivid and intimate insight into the lives of a group of American negroes, from whom Porgy stands out, rich in humour and tragedy.'

Racisms

Titre : Racisms
Auteur : Francisco Bethencourt
Éditeur : Princeton University Press
ISBN-13 : 9781400848416
Libération : 2014-01-19

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Racisms is the first comprehensive history of racism, from the Crusades to the twentieth century. Demonstrating that there is not one continuous tradition of racism, Francisco Bethencourt shows that racism preceded any theories of race and must be viewed within the prism and context of social hierarchies and local conditions. In this richly illustrated book, Bethencourt argues that in its various aspects, all racism has been triggered by political projects monopolizing specific economic and social resources. Racisms focuses on the Western world, but opens comparative views on ethnic discrimination and segregation in Asia and Africa. Bethencourt looks at different forms of racism, and explores instances of enslavement, forced migration, and ethnic cleansing, while analyzing how practices of discrimination and segregation were defended. This is a major interdisciplinary work that moves away from ideas of linear or innate racism and recasts our understanding of interethnic relations.

Diversity and European Human Rights

Titre : Diversity and European Human Rights
Auteur : Eva Brems
Éditeur : Cambridge University Press
ISBN-13 : 9781107026605
Libération : 2013

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A demonstration of how European Court of Human Rights judgments might better accommodate the concerns of minorities.

International Criminal Practice

Titre : International Criminal Practice
Auteur : John R. W. D. Jones
Éditeur : Brill - Nijhoff
ISBN-13 : STANFORD:36105063590652
Libération : 2003

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There are currently four international criminal courts: the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (the "ICTY"), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (the "ICTR"), the International Criminal Court (the "ICC") and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (albeit one that is a mixed international-domestic court) (the "SCSL"). Their predecessors, the International Military Tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo, for all the criticism that they were "victors' tribunals", were nonetheless international) and are therefore included in this study of international criminal courts and tribunals. The ICTY and ICTR have both held extensive trials and appeals, while the ICC and SCSL are not in operation at the time of publication. Accordingly, the approach adopted here is to examine the law and practice of the ICTY and ICTR in parallel, with a comparison being made to the ICC and SCSL, where appropriate, at the end of each section. Unlike the first two editions of this work, this edition is presented thematically, rather than as an article-by-article, rule-by-rule commentary. Given the emerging corpus of international criminal law generated by the Statutes, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and jurisprudence of the ICTY, ICTR, ICC and the courts in East Timor, Sierra Leone and Kosovo, among others, a subject-matter approach appears more logical and, indeed, user-friendly. Where, however, readers seek exegesis of a specific article, they have only to make reference to the article-by-article, rule-by-rule index to find the appropriate page(s). This is in addition to the subject-matter index.