Les grandes batailles m ridionales
Dans nos esprits, le chevalier symbolise une époque. Période d'insécurité et de violences quasi constantes, le Moyen Âge voit dans la pratique des armes ou l'art de la guerre une activité légitime. Les témoins nous ont laissé des récits de combats, batailles, sièges ou razzias tous aussi macabres les uns que les autres. Ils décrivent la férocité et la cruauté d'altercations rendues inévitables en raison d'importants enjeux. Ces combats semblent même nécessaires au maintien de l'ordre politique et religieux. L'histoire médiévale du Midi de la France ne déroge pas à cette règle. Toutefois, il faut nuancer l'image d'une société sans cesse soumise aux exactions de seigneurs guerriers, abusant de leur rang et de leurs armes. Ces batailles aux noms demeurés célèbres - Muret, Beaucaire, Montségur - vont bouleverser l'échiquier politique et religieux de l'Europe occidentale. Au tournant du XIIe siècle, le grand duel entre les maisons de Toulouse et de Barcelone laisse la place aux prémices d'un conflit régional d'un genre nouveau : la croisade albigeoise. Cette première " guerre sacrée ", organisée dans l'Occident chrétien, invente la " guerre des temps modernes et la mort quantifiée ".
Crusade and Christendom
In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued his letter Vineam Domini, thundering against the enemies of Christendom—the "beasts of many kinds that are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth"—and announcing a General Council of the Latin Church as redress. The Fourth Lateran Council, which convened in 1215, was unprecedented in its scope and impact, and it called for the Fifth Crusade as what its participants hoped would be the final defense of Christendom. For the first time, a collection of extensively annotated and translated documents illustrates the transformation of the crusade movement. Crusade and Christendom explores the way in which the crusade was used to define and extend the intellectual, religious, and political boundaries of Latin Christendom. It also illustrates how the very concept of the crusade was shaped by the urge to define and reform communities of practice and belief within Latin Christendom and by Latin Christendom's relationship with other communities, including dissenting political powers and heretical groups, the Moors in Spain, the Mongols, and eastern Christians. The relationship of the crusade to reform and missionary movements is also explored, as is its impact on individual lives and devotion. The selection of documents and bibliography incorporates and brings to life recent developments in crusade scholarship concerning military logistics and travel in the medieval period, popular and elite participation, the role of women, liturgy and preaching, and the impact of the crusade on western society and its relationship with other cultures and religions. Intended for the undergraduate yet also invaluable for teachers and scholars, this book illustrates how the crusades became crucial for defining and promoting the very concept and boundaries of Latin Christendom. It provides translations of and commentaries on key original sources and up-to-date bibliographic materials.
A French Grammar
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The Reign of King Stephen
At last: an authoritative, up to date account of the troubled reign of King Stephen, by a leading scholar of the Anglo-Norman world. David Crouch covers every aspect of the period - the king and the empress, the aristocracy, the Church, government and the nation at large. He also looks at the wider dimensions of the story, in Scotland, Wales, Normandy and elsewhere. The result (weaving its discussions around a vigorous narrative core) is a a work of major scholarship. A must for specialist and amateur medievalists alike.
This work provides a biography of Henry I, who ruled from 1100 to 1135. It offers a reassessment of Henry's character and reign, challenging the dated portrait of the king as brutal, greedy and repressive, arguing that his rule was based on order.